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Copyright.
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Your writings, audio, and other artistic and literary works are informally copyright protected at the moment they are create, particularly on a medium.
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Fortress PATENTS / IP guides creators with informal rights and protections, as well as formal copyright registration, rights, and protections.
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Copyright Is Immediate
Copyright protections have evolved to be immediate and facile.
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♦  Ownership and protection is immediate at the moment elements of original works are affixed to a permanent medium to include forms requiring the “… aid of machine or device,” such as a book, film, player, computer, etc. (17 U.S. Code 102).
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♦  Copyright protection is not dependent upon use of the copyright symbol, but using it gives notice of the author’s claim of ownership and rights.
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♦  Protections extend to formally published and unpublished works, as publication of the work is no longer key to securing copyright protection.
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♦  Protection is given to authorship from any nationality or origin, but formal U.S. copyright registration requires U.S. nationality of domiciliary, first published in the U.S. or treaty country, among other requirements.
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♦  “Work made for hire” goes to the employer or as contractually agreed.
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Copyrights
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Registration Authorities
Copyrights can be registered with the following considerations:
U.S. Copyrights – Administered by the U.S. Copyright Office.
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International Copyrights – There is no common international copyright or copyright process at the moment, but there is some evolution with the following treaties:
♦  The WIPO Lex database is a comprehensive search tool that allows you to search national laws and international treaties on intellectual property.
♦  A list of treatees and agreements – See https://www.fortresspatents.com/international-copyright/
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Foreign copyrights – An author who desires copyright protection for his or her work in a particular country, should consider:
♦  Determine the extent of protection available to works of foreign authors in that country.
♦  Determine requirements before publishing anywhere, if possible, because protection may depend on the facts existing at the time of first publication.
♦  The scope of protection available in that country will then turn on the substantive provisions available under that country’s law and practice.
♦  Keep in mind, however, that some countries offer little or no copyright protection to foreign works.
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Some “Fair Use” Protection Exceptions
Copyright protections are not limitless, but include among other exceptions the doctrine of “fair use” provided for in the Copyright Act of 1976. This act permits limited use of copyrighted materials without gaining permission in the following types of uses:
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♦  Permissible uses: Commentary, Search engines, criticism, parody, news reporting, research, teaching, library archiving, and scholarship.
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♦  Four factors have been established to guide initial fair use consideration (17 U.S. Code 107):
1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes (the courts are somewhat downplaying commercial use as most use has some commercial connection).
2. The nature of the copyrighted work.
3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole.
4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work.
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Note – There is no specific number of words, lines, or notes that may safely be taken without permission.
Note – Acknowledging the source of the copyrighted material does not substitute for obtaining permission.
Also note – Copyright protects the author’s unique way of expression and does not reach to any ideas, systems, or factual information stated.
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Fortress PATENTS / IP invites and welcomes your writings or calls to answer questions, get acquainted, or get started in clarifying informal copyrights or in formalizing copyright rights and protections.
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